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A.1 Access


Class Outline 
  Access Network
      Wired 
      Wirelss/WiFi and Mobile/2G-3G-...
 Technology Development
     Low-Ortbital Satellites
     Baloons and Drones
     TV Spectrum (White Space)
     Fiber
     Wireless: 6G and WiFi
  Access Device
      Computer (desktop, laptop)
      Smartphone/Tablet
      IoT
  Universal Access/Service
  Access Charge
  Access Discrimination
  Access for Disability
  Restrictions and Fragmentation
      Limited Access;
      Shutdowns;
      "Disconnect-Separation-Fragmentation";

Class Description (by Kilnam Chon, [ppt])
   1. History
      1.1  no. of users; internet, mobile phones
   2  Infrastructure
       2.1  fiber
       2.2  wireless; *G, WiFi, Satellite
   3. Technologies under Development
       3.1 Low Orbital Satellite
       3.2 Baloon
    4. Universal Services
    5.  Restrictions and Fragmentation
        5..1 Limited Access
                  SG, Korea, China,..
        5.2 Shutdown (no 24*7 access; eCommerce)
                   South Asia, West Asia, Southeast Asia,...
        5.3 Separation (and Fragmentation)
                   Russia
    6. Surveillance
        6.1 Surveillance Capitalism by Zuboff
        6.2 Others
    7. Access for Disability
    8. Issues and Remarks
             
Candidate Lecturers: Kilnam Chon

References 
  Amazon, Project Kuiper. Amazon plans to launch a massive constellation of more than 3,000 internet satellites.
  Chinese Internet Company, Linksure, hopes to delvier free Internet service by 2026, 2018.11.
  Kilnam Chon, Internet access for last billion, 2017.
  Kilnam Chon, Internet access, 2020.[ppt]
  Peter Diamondis, Future of Hiper Connectivity, in Future is faster, 2019-2020.
  Facebook/Internet.org, Free Basics
  Facebook, Drone Project, Wired Magazine, 2016.11.10
  Global Voices, What lies ahead for RuNet in 2020?, 2020.1.
  Google, Loon Project, Caching Project, and Leased Line to National Gateway.
  Indian Government, Digital India, 2015.
  Estonian Government, Universal Service (E-stonia).
  South Korean Government, Universal Service.
  MIT Technology Review, China is racing ahead in 5G, 2018.12.
  MIT Technology Review, Ready for 6G? How AI will shape the network of the future, 2019.4.23.
  Nepal Wireless Project.
  OneWeb.world, 2016.12.  [Son/Softbank, 2017 (in Japanese)]
  UN Broadband Commission, "1 for 2", 2018.  [also in A4AI]