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3.2 Internet Users and Non-Users

3.2A Global Internet Users and Non-Users
  Class Outline:

          Users - Ultimate stakeholder.
          Global Internet users: 100 million in 2002, 1 billion in 2006, 2 billion in 2011, 3 billion in 2015, and 5~7 billion in 2020s.
         How to represent the current Internet users in the internet governance?

      Implicit Users
         Messaging, Payment (m-pesa, alipay, traffic,...), Automobile,...

      Non-users/New users
         How to represent new users and non-users in the internet governance?
         How to solve devices, (affordable) access, contents,...?

      Digital divide

      Local culture
      Universal access/service

  Lecture Pool
  Additional Candidate LecturersKilnam Chon, Anriette Esterhuyser,....

   Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development, ITU and UNESCO; [State of Broadband 2015], [Planning for Progress: why broadband matters?]
   Kilnam Chon, The Other Billion, 2015.12.26.
   Kilnam Chon, Asia Internet History, 2012~2016. 
   Facebook’s huge drone completes second test flight without crashing, VB, 2017. [Drone Project (Aquila)]
   Free Basics: 
India - Temporary Ban, Eygpt - Shutdown, Debate, 2015~2016. [Face Book advertisements in India, 2015.12; 12345]
   IEEE, Connecting the next billion, 2017. 
   IETF, How do we connect everyone to the Internet?, IETF 101 Plenary, 2018.3.
   Google, Google got permission to float its internet-beaming balloons over Puerto Rico, Mashable Asia, 2017.10.
   Internet Identity Workshop, Computer History Museum, (biannually).
   IGF, Internet of Things and accessibility for people with disability, WS 145, 2017.12.
   ISOC, Internet Governance for Development, in Shaping the Internet, 2015.
   Jovan Kurbalija, Alliance for Affordable Internet,, Development Basket, in Introduction to IG, 2015. 
   UN, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 2015.
   WEF, Network Readiness Index.
   Facebook with on Free Basics, Drone Project
   Google with, Project Loon
   Microsoft, Village project witih Digital India,...
    Indian Government, Digital India, 2015.
   Chinese Government, Internet +
   WEF,Internet for all, White Paper, 2016.4.

  IGF Theme: Access, Inclusion and Diversity

  Class Outline 
   Minorities: people with disability, children, senior citizen, low income people, linguistic/ethnic minority, discrimination
   Universal service/access

  Class Description (Nirmata Narasimhan)

      The Internet and new technologies have opened up avenues of access and participation for persons with disabilities and other groups with limited or hindered access to participate and contribute to socio-economic and         cultural life. There are over a billion persons with disabilities in the world, and 85% of them live in developing countries. They constitute the world’s largest minority. This class will look at the opportunities offered by         the Internet for inclusion (with examples of assistive technologies),  the breadth and number of persons who will be benefited by access to the Internet such as persons with disabilities, and elderly persons who are                 illiterate or have limited access, and we explain the concept of accessibility in this class.

  Class Description (by Muhammad Shabbir)

   Introduction: What is Web Accessibility?
   Overview of Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
   Explanation of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)-2.0;
   Web Accessibility Barriers;
   Common Issues in the Way of Internet Accessibility;
   Case for Making Websites Accessible.

  Class Description (by Gunela Astbrink) - Revised Class Description/2017.2.28

    Strategies to get the next billion online need to include what are perceived as minority groups such as:
    -  People with disability
    -  Children
    -  Senior citizens
    -  People with low income
    -  Linguistic/ethnic minority

    People with disability on average form 15% of a country's population and in some countries, senior citizens form 20% of the population. Children in many countries average about 30% of the               population. Together with people on low incomes and from linguistic minorities, there is a large part of society that may be discriminated against leading to less ability to participate in the digital       economy.
    This class will outline issues for these groups and will then concentrate on Internet governance policy for people with disability and older people who most often have low incomes.

        Topics covered will include:
        UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
        Marrakech Treaty
        W3C's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
        NetMundial and other Internet governance mechanisms
        Accessibility in ICT public procurement
        Disaster risk management and disability

    There will be a demonstration by people with disability on how they use the Internet. This will be either in-person demonstrations or through video. This will be followed by discussion on Internet           accessibility and its benefits to education and employment and general participation in the community.

  Lecturer Pool:
  Additional Candidate Lecturers: Nirmita Narasimhan, Adrian Roselli, Muhammad Shabbir, Malavika Jayaram, Masafumi Nakane, Gunela Astbrink

   Accessibility Camp, NYC, 2016.
   Atlantic, Alexa is a revelation for the blind, 2018.4.
   Austria Government, e-Accessibility.
   Australian Government, e-Inclusion
   Gunela Astbrink, Internet Accessibility: Internet use by persons with disability,  Internet Society, 2012.
   Gunela Astrbink, Bio, 2017.
   IEEE, Connecting the next billion, 2017.
   Microsoft, Microsoft’s Bid to Connect Rural America: Send Out Internet in between TV Signals (by Jamie Condkuffe), 2017.7.
  Microsoft, AI for accessibility, Build 2018, 2018-2023.
   Martha Craven Mussbaum, Theory of justice advocating the capability approach, Kyoto Prize, 2016.
   Nirmita Narasimhan, Bio.
   Nirmita Narasimhan, The moral imperative and business case for accessibility in technology, Factory Daily, 2016.
   Nirmita Narasimhan, Universal service for persons with disability, G3ict.
   Nirmita Narasimhan, CIS work in accessibility, 2008-2016, 2016.
   Nirmita Narasimhan, ICT Accessibility.
   Nirmita Narasimhan, No person left behind, 2017.
   Nirmita Narasimhan, Accessibility policy and practice, 2017.
   Adrian Roselli, Accessibility, a11y NYC, 2016. [ppt], [video]
   Muhammad Shabbir, Internet Accessibility, MEAC-SIG, 2016. [ppt]
   Muhammad Shabbir, Bio, 2016.
   US Government, e-Inclusion.
   Elizabeth Woyke, How blockchain can bring financial services to the poor, MIT Technology Reivew, 2017.4.18.
   Chinese Government, Internet +, 2016.
   Kilnam Chon, The Other Billion, 2015.12.26.
   Kilnam Chon, Asia Internet History, 2012~2016. 
   Kilnam Chon, Internet access to last billion, 2017.
Facebook with on Free Basics, Drone Project
   Free Basics: India - Temporary Ban, Eygpt - Shutdown, Debate, 2015~2016. [Face Book advertisements in India, 2015.12; 12345]
   Google with, Project Loon
   Dennis Hong, Making a car for blind drivers. [youtube]
   Indian Government, Digital India, 2015.
   IGFInternet Universal Affordable Access, IGF, Bali, 2013.
   ISOC, Internet Governance for Development, in Shaping the Internet, 2015.
   Jovan Kurbalija, Development Basket, in Introduction to IG, 2015.
   UN, 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 2015., 2016.12. [Guardian article]
SpaceX, Low (Cost) Orbital Satellite, 2015.
   W3C, Web standards to enable an accessible and inclusive IoT, 2017.
   WEF, Network Readiness Index.